Acehnese and Javanese Dialect as Language Varieties in Indonesian Language Dian Purwitasari, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang, Indonesia
Indonesia as a multicultural country has various tribes all over the country with its distinctive features. Each of them has their own local language that connects people within a particular ethnic group. In bridging people with diverse cultural and linguistic background, Indonesian language is spoken throughout the country as a national language. Indonesian language, as a consequence, has various and distinctive language variety known as regional dialect. Wardhaugh (2002) described regional dialect as different pronunciation, choice of words, and syntax in a certain language spoken in wide geographical area. People from Javanese, for example, use Indonesian language differently with people from Bali, Kalimantan, and any other region in Indonesia including Aceh and Java. The farther the regions are separated, the more distinct Indonesian Language is used between them. This paper would investigate different dialect of Indonesian language spoken by Acehnese and Javanese as a language variety in case of regional dialect. The data used in this paper is in the form of words, phrases and sentences. The analysis would come to a comparison between Acehnese and Javanese style of Indonesian language with variationist sociolinguistics approach. The difference between two dialects here would not be considered as a distortion of Indonesian language. However, this would result language varieties which need to be learned further to avoid misunderstanding in communication among different tribes in Indonesia.
The Home of the Unidentified Ethnic Groups in China - Case Study: Guizhou Unidentified Ethnic Groups' Today and Tomorrow Qiaoyang Li, Centre for the World Ethnic Studies, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang, China
Peiqing Zhang, School of Foreign Language and Literature, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, China
Nation is a large community of people, usually, sharing a common history, language, culture, etc, and living in a particular territory under one government. It is a historical technical term since the human came into being. China has 56 ethnic groups. While, still 640 thousand more people remain unrecognized up to now, that is to say, they are out of those “official” groups though quite a few of them can still enjoy preferential treatment in accordance with the provisions of the State. With the acceleration of economic globalization, and the age of high-speed rail, they find themselves in a dilemma. On the one hand, they can not enjoy the preferential in a comprehensive way as a “special group” compared with the others; on the other, a few of elites have been struggling to be identified as a minority by the state for lack of definite status---- equivalent ethnic code, as brings them a lot of troubles in, say, studying abroad, hunting jobs. The paper takes Guizhou unidentified ethnic groups as a case study, trying to discuss their home today and tomorrow.
No Sale: A History of Success Failure(s) at Teaching the Holocaust to Israel's Palestinian Arab Citizenry, 1996 to the present Andrea G. Tyndall, Maastricht University
In the past 25 years there have been three distinct efforts by Yad Vashem to teach the Holocaust to Israel’s Arab citizenry. All 3 programs failed miserably. In this paper I analyze these different programs in order to identify the systemic causes for Yad Vashem’s sole educational failure (s) to teach the Holocaust to its own population. This paper argues that these programs were seen as failure(s) because they did not achieve the stated educational goals. I disagree with this assessment. My research supports the claim that these very failures were in fact successes in that they maintained the core beliefs that created the continuing conflict between Jewish and Arab citizens in the first place. These failures were in fact successful components in maintaining an intractable conflict between the majority and minority populations. These findings rest upon two bodies of research materials. The first are primary sources gathered from Yad Vashem and interviews I conducted with key educational actors in this process. Additionally, articles and editorials from the Israeli and Arab popular presses which helped to set public opinion on these programs are examined. This research is important to understanding the conflict between two civic groups who suffer only from ‘the narcissism of minor differences’. This gives hope for peace.
Interreligious Dialogue: An Islamic Approach
Mohammad Elius, Department of Islamic History and Civilisation, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya (UM)
Mohd Roslan bin Mohd Nor, Department of Islammic History and Civilisation, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya (UM)
Issa Khan, Department of Shariah and Management, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya
Dialogue among the followers of different religions is a necessary condition for promoting peace, tolerance, harmony, and religious co-existence in today’s world. Islam is a religion of peace, tolerance, unity, justice, love and brotherhood which always fosters mutual, cooperative and positive relation between one another irrespective of caste, creed and religion for the greater happiness of mankind. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of interreligious dialogue and its relation to Islam. It highlights the importance of interreligious dialogue in Islam as a model for strengthening mutual respect, understanding, cooperation and human dignity.The study is followed by textual analysis and historical interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah. This study also includes the treatment of Muslim rulers to the people of other religions with a view to understand the real picture of interreligious relationship in any Islamic society. The research shows how Islam plays a unique role in promoting interreligious dialogue and harmony through accepting all previous prophets as the prophets of Islam and granting the freedom of religious practices by the people of any religion, culture and civilization. Finally, the research also provides some important suggestions to future research in this area more effectively which will resolve many interreligious conflicts and establish better understanding among the people of various religions around the world.
Teaching of Reading: The Effects of Students' Interest Level on their Reading Comprehension Performance Nurullashkeen bt Mohd Anis, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UNITAR)
This paper explored the reading interest of secondary school students on variety reading topics and the effects of students’ reading interest level on their reading comprehension performance among secondary school students. Reading is one of the most important language skills as one can be extremely good in mathematics but if the said person has poor reading skills, he or she may misinterpret the questions and still fails to answer the questions correctly. It is undeniable that reading is everywhere in our life from reading the instruction manual of a new washing machine to reading the sign boards on the streets. Thus, it is important that we find a way to help improve reading skills. Context support method concerns with using materials that are of students’ interest in teaching reading which can serve as an intrinsic motivation to the students and encourage them to complete tasks of higher difficulty level. 36 students from a selected secondary school in Tambun were chosen based on a convenient sampling. A survey was conducted in order to find out the students’ reading interest. A pre-test and post-test on reading comprehension was also conducted. The pre-test consists of reading comprehension exercise on a topic deemed least interesting to the students whereas in the post-test, a reading comprehension exercise on a topic deemed most interesting to the students was conducted to compare the effects of different interest level on their reading comprehension performance. The results have shown that students’ reading interest does vary individually and students do perform better when they have high interest towards the topic in the reading comprehension.
Request Strategies in Libyan PG Students' E-mails to Faculty Ergaya Ali Gerair Alsout, University of Malaya (UM)
Mohsen Khedri, Faculty of Languages and Linguistics, University of Malaya (UM)
This study investigated the request strategies with varying levels of directness employed by Libyan PG students in their e-requests to faculty. Internal and external request modifications used by the Libyan PG students to mitigate and modify their e-requests were also identified. The participants in this study were 20 Libyan PG students at four Malaysian universities. Content analysis was used to analyze the request strategies and the modifications. Results showed that the students tend to utilize more direct strategies in their e-requests, especially, want statements, imperatives, direct questions, and performative statements. It was also found that most of the students were bare of lexical/phrasal modifications, but were overused the external one. The results of the present study are expected to provide more insight into the nature of e-requests from cross-cultural and interlanguage perspectives. Thus, it is implicated that awareness of e-mail conventions in terms of their pragmatic functions and linguistic expressions used to realize the request speech act, and how these linguistic forms vary according to the social context are important to be raised especially for non-native English students. PDF
Implementation of Language Policy: Impacts in Teaching and Learning P Kangathevi A/P Ponnudorai, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)
A new policy which is called ‘Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening Command of English’ (Memartabatkan Bahasa Malaysia Memperkukuh Bahasa Inggeris) or known as MBMMBI policy was introduced for Year 1 to Form 5 students, replacing ‘Teaching and Learning of Science and Mathematics in English’ (PPSMI) policy by the Malaysian Cabinet in July 2009. This MBMMBI policy has been implemented phase by phase since 2010. The change from PPSMI to MBMMBI is expected to produce Malaysians who are fluent and assertive in both Malay (BM) and English languages. As a result, in 2011, KSSR has been implemented in Science and Mathematics using BM in the National Schools (SK) and vernacular languages in the National-Typed Schools (SJK). This study focuses on vernacular school teachers’ perspectives regarding the issue of the implementation of MBMMBI policy whereby the aim was. Results from the study indicated that the teachers are taking a positive perspective in upholding the Malay language or vernacular languages and at the same time strengthening the command of the English language for their students’ future. Though, a few senior or experienced teachers were concern on the maintenance of vernacular languages in teaching low proficiency students. PDF